encyclopedia

Glucose Moisturizer (Methyl gluceth)

Natural Sources:     

Corn and other botanicals. Note: Methyl gluceth can be naturally derived from corn but commercial grade Methyl gluceth is normally manufactured from corn sugar and corn starch.     

Forms:     

Corn sugar; Methyl glucose esters; Methyl gluceth-10; Methyl gluceth-20     

Therapeutic Uses:     

– Atopic eczema
– Clogged Pores
– Drug Delivery
– Dry Skin
– Emollient
– Infant Skin Problems
– Itching
– Moisturizer
– Newborn Skin Problems
– Skin Problems
– Skin Roughness
– Wrinkles

Overview:     

Glucose is a natural component of the stratum corneum layers of skin that binds water and hydrates skin. It is a component of what are called “natural moisturizing factors” or NMF. Glucose moisturizers, including Methyl gluceth-10 and -20, are naturally derived water-soluble emollients, humectants and moisturizers. Methyl gluceth is a corn-based naturally derived emollient noted for its safety and mildness that imparts a smooth and silky feel on the skin. Glucose moisturizers also improve the richness of shampoos and enhance the foaming properties of cleansers. Methyl gluceth is considered a special moisturizing agent used particularly for its moisture retentive qualities and as a surfactant in skin creams and other cosmetics to open pores and follicles. Glucose moisturizers are frequently used in creams and cosmetics along with other ingredients to improve skin hydration. Other natural moisturizing factors include amino acids, carboxylic pyrrolidone acid, lactic acid, urea, and mineral ions. The natural moisturizing factors contained in the corneocytes of skin are formed during epidermal skin cell differentiation and may represent up to ten percent of corneocyte cell mass. The binding of water to natural moisturizing factors in skin is considered by experts to be the static aspect of cutaneous hydration. The second, dynamic, aspect is related to the selective permeability of the stratum corneum and to its lipid barrier properties, the permeability of which depends on the integrity and nature of the inter-corneocyte lipids and their organization between the cells. With these considerations, hydration cosmetics (skin moisturizers) rely on two concepts that can be isolated or associated: 1) the supply of hydrophilic substances  (i.e. natural moisturizing factors) to the stratum corneum, capable of attracting and retaining water, and 2) the supply of compounds capable of restoring the barrier functions of skin to restore normal water loss and protect skin against physical damage.     

Chemistry:     

Glucose moisturizers including methyl gluceth-10 and methyl gluceth-20 are esters of methyl glucose that can be naturally derived from botanical sources including corn or can be manufactured from corn sugar and starch. Methyl gluceth-10 and methyl gluceth-20 are pale yellow liquids.     

Suggested Amount:     

Glucose moisturizers are recommended for use in creams and other cosmetics at the level of approximately 0.5% w/w.     

Drug Interactions:     

None known.     

Contraindications:     

None known.     

Side Effects:     

None known.     

References:      
    
Bodak N, Bodemer C. 2002. [Cutaneous hydration of the premature and new born]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan; 129(1 Pt 2): 143-6. [Article in French].
 
Haftek M. 2002. [The stratum corneum]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan; 129(1 Pt 2): 117-22. [Article in French].
 
Marty JP. 2002. [NMF and cosmetology of cutaneous hydration]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan; 129(1 Pt 2): 131-6. [Article in French].
 
Ogiso T, Shiraki T, Okajima K, Tanino T, Iwaki M, Wada T. 2002. Transfollicular drug delivery: penetration of drugs through human scalp skin and comparison of penetration between scalp and abdominal skins in vitro. J Drug Target 2002 Aug; 10(5): 369-78.
 
Stalder JF. 2002. [Cutaneous hydration and atopia]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan;129(1 Pt 2):147-51. [Article in French]
 
Wehr RF, Krochmal L. 1987. Considerations in selecting a moisturizer. Cutis 1987 Jun; 39(6): 512-5.

Additional Information:     

Glucose Moisturizer Research:

Marty JP. 2002. [NMF and cosmetology of cutaneous hydration]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan; 129(1 Pt 2): 131-6. [Article in French].
 
In the stratum corneum, the water binds to the intracellular hygroscopic and hydrosoluble substances called “natural moisturizing factors” or NMF. These “natural moisturizing factors” contained in the corneocytes are formed during epidermal differentiation and may represent up to 10 p. cent of the corneocyte mass. They are principally amino acids, carboxylic pyrrolidone acid, lactic acid, urea, glucose and mineral ions. Keratinization plays an important part in the formation of NMF that exhibit strong osmotic potential attracting the water molecules. The binding of water to NMF is the static aspect of cutaneous hydration. The second, dynamic, aspect is related to the selective permeability of the stratum corneum and to its lipid barrier properties, the permeability of which depends on the integrity and nature of the inter-corneocyte lipids and their lamellar organization between the cells. In these conditions, hydration cosmetics rely on two concepts that can be isolated or associated: the supply of hydrophilic substances to the stratum corneum, capable of attracting and retaining water (moisturizer) or capable of restoring the barrier in order to restore normal water loss or of protecting it against aggression (occlusive).
 
Wehr RF, Krochmal L. 1987. Considerations in selecting a moisturizer. Cutis 1987 Jun; 39(6): 512-5.
 
The symptoms of xerosis (dry skin) can be ameliorated by increasing the hydration state of the stratum corneum through a humectant or occlusive effect, smoothing the rough surface with an emollient, replenishing natural moisturizing factors, and normalizing the stratum corneum. We present the primary and secondary functions of various “active” and vehicle ingredients and include precautions regarding certain classes of materials. Recommendations on selecting moisturizing systems are made based on ingredient functionality and the severity of the dry skin condition.
 
Stalder JF. 2002. [Cutaneous hydration and atopia]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan;129(1 Pt 2):147-51. [Article in French]
 
Clinique Dermatologique, Hotel Dieu, CHU, 44000 Nantes.
 
Altered barrier function of atopic skin is characterized by xerosis, which predominantly affects non-inflammatory areas. Xerosis is accompanied by morphological, physical and biochemical modifications. The composition of epidermal lipids in atopic patients is modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The impact of xerosis and abnormal barrier function in such patients is on different levels: –via excessive permeability to allergens and atopens, –but also via constant staphylococcal colonization of the atopic skin. The role of moisturizing treatments in restoring the barrier function in such patients is an important therapeutic aim. Clinical assessment of the effect of moisturizing topicals relies on objective means (SCORAD index) but also on avoiding corticosteroids or the impact of these moisturizers on patients'quality of life.
 

Bodak N, Bodemer C. 2002. [Cutaneous hydration of the premature and new born]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan; 129(1 Pt 2): 143-6. [Article in French].
 
Service de Dermatologie, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, 149, rue de Sevres, 75015 Paris.
 
The barrier function of the stratum corneum is a fundamental element in maintaining cutaneous hydration. Alteration in the stratum corneum leads to the loss of this barrier function, with increased transdermal water loss, decreased water content and installation of xerosis. Moisturizers correct cutaneous xerosis by restoring the stratum corneum. In the new born, the architectural and biochemical structure of the stratum corneum is identical to that of infants and adults. However, 60 p. cent of new born exhibit physiologic desquamation, demonstrating a transitory functional deficit in the stratum corneum, justifying emollient treatment. After this physiological desquamation period, emollients are reserved for atopic infants or those presenting keratinization disorders. In the premature, the epidermis and particularly the stratum corneum are immature; trans-epidermal water loss is elevated and the skin is dry or even fissural. The interest of applying emollients to the skin of premature new born was recently demonstrated. Emollients improved the aspect of the skin and also decreased the number of infectious episodes.
 

Haftek M. 2002. [The stratum corneum]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002 Jan; 129(1 Pt 2): 117-22. [Article in French].
 
U. 346 INSERM affiliee au CNRS, Peau Humaine et Immunite , Hopital E.-Herriot, 69437 Lyon.
 
Epidermal differentiation is a continuous process, constituting and renewing a protective layer at the skin surface: the stratum corneum, composed of cornified keratinocytes that is a barrier to water diffusion. Massive loss of physiologic liquids is one of the severest consequences of extensive burns. The stratum corneum also protects the subjacent tissues from xenobiotic aggression, ultraviolet radiation (70 p. cent of UVB absorption) and from mechanic aggression. The integrity of the stratum corneum depends on three elements: 1) the physico-chemical quality of the cornified cells, 2) the persistence of mechanical junctions uniting these cells and 3) the organization and composition of the lipid “mortar” in the intercellular spaces. Since all these components are issued from the keratinocyte differentiation process, any perturbation may, in time, induce modifications in the “barrier” function of the epidermis. The barrier quality varies, depending on its localization (soles of the feet, palms of the hands and transitional epidermis of the lips), during skin healing (priority to keratinocyte proliferation to the detriment of maturation) under the influence of treatment (retinoids, vitamin D derivatives), in the course of aging and diseases: ichtyosis and other keratinization genodermatoses, benign (including psoriasis) and malignant hyperproliferative diseases. Furthermore, the relative impermeability of the stratum corneum is an important factor limiting the penetration and diffusion of allergens, but also local drugs delivered with local and systemic trans-epidermal treatments. Further knowledge is required on the function of the epidermal barrier and the mechanism regulating cohesion/desquamation of the stratum corneum to understand certain hereditary diseases, improve efficacy of topical therapeutic products and optimize cosmetic formulations.
 
 
 
Ogiso T, Shiraki T, Okajima K, Tanino T, Iwaki M, Wada T. 2002. Transfollicular drug delivery: penetration of drugs through human scalp skin and comparison of penetration between scalp and abdominal skins in vitro. J Drug Target 2002 Aug; 10(5): 369-78.
 
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Osaka, Japan. t-ogiso@phar.kindai.ac.jp
 
In order to quantitatively investigate the importance of transfollicular pathway for drug delivery, drug penetration through human scalp skin was investigated using liquid formulations containing lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs in vitro. The penetration pathway for drugs through the scalp skin was examined using fluorescent probes. Additionally, the drug penetration through the scalp skin was compared with that via human abdominal skin to clarify the usefulness of intrafollicular delivery. Lipophilic melatonin (MT) and ketoprofen (KP) showed high permeabilities through the scalp skin, although the flux of KP was much higher. Absorption enhancers, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and isopropylmyristate, only slightly increased the fluxes. Hydrophilic fluorouracil (5FU) and acyclovir (ACV) penetrated through the scalp skin with relatively large fluxes. However, there was large variability in the fluxes of these drugs across scalp skin from different sources. When the relationship between the flux and hair follicle density was estimated, there was good correlation between the two (r = 0.651 for MT and r = 0.666 for ACV, P < 0.05). The histologic examination of the scalp skin, following application of the formulation with nile red or sodium fluorescein, indicated that the probes permeated into the junction of the internal and external root sheath of follicles and diffused into the dermis via the outer root sheath at the initial times. The penetration of nile red, a lipophilic probe, via the stratum corneum of scalp skin was later than that via the follicles. The permeation of MT and 5FU through the scalp skin was much higher than that via the abdominal skin, being 27 and 48 times as high as the abdominal skin, respectively. These results indicate that the drug delivery through the scalp skin will offer an available delivery means for drugs, particularly for hydrophilic drugs.