encyclopedia

Chrysanthemum Flowers (Morifolii)

Scientific Names:    

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. var. sinense Makino forma esculentum Makino. (syn. Dendranthema morifolium Tzvel) [Fam. Asteraceae]    
     

Forms:    

Chrysanthemum flower, fresh or cut and dried; flower juice; and tincture.    
     

Traditional Usage:    

– AIDS
– Antibacterial
– Antifungal
– Anti-inflammatory
– Antioxidant
– Boils
– Cellular Regeneration
– Cleansing/Detoxification
– Coughs
– Digestive Problems
– Dizziness
– Eyesight Disorders
– Fever
– Headache
– HIV Infection
– Liver Health Maintenance
– Respiratory Health Maintenance
– Sedative
– Vascular Disorders     
     
    
Overview:    

Chrysanthemum Morifolii flowers, Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat [Fam. Asteraceae], also known as Ju Hua in Chinese, are edible flowers native to Eurasia and India, commonly combined with tea leaves as a daily beverage in the Orient and also used in traditional Chinese medicine particularly for their liver balancing properties. Chrysanthemum Morifolii flowers alleviate fever, headaches and disperse and remove toxins from the body. Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers are also one of two primary ingredients in a classical Chinese cough remedy called Sang ju yin that is available preformed in most Chinese herbal stores. Based on traditional use, Chyrsanthemum morifolium flowers are also popularly used for treating dizziness, ocular inflammation, and skin boils. Additionally, the flowers have been shown to have antibacterial, antifungal and hypotensive effects. The flowers also contain several strong anti-inflammatory compounds. In the Chinese Materia Medicas, the flowers of several Chrysanthemum species are used to clear 'heat' (inflammation and boils) from the body. Chrysanthemum morifolium was also used as a sedative, for its cooling ability in headache and in influenza. Related plant, Chrysanthemum sinense, was recommended in the classical Chinese herbal work, the Pen Ts'ao, for promoting menses and treating digestive, circulatory and nervous difficulties (taken as an extract made by steeping the flowers in wine). Chrysanthemum morifolium also possesses strong activity against abnormal growths. Tests have shown that out of fifteen compounds isolated from the edible flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium, all showed potent inhibitory effects against abnormal cells. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity revealed that one compound, arnidiol, possesses a wide range of cytotoxicity (activity against abnormal cells). Chrysanthemum morifolium also contains a flavonoid compound called acacetin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, active against HIV infection. Research in China using about 60 grams daily of Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers for lowering vascular pressure reported case success rates of 17.1% very effective, 51.4% effective, 31.5% not effective.    
     
    
Active Ingredients:    

Chyrsanthemum morifolium flowers contain: Fifteen pentacyclic triterpene diols and triols, consisting of: six taraxastanes, faradiol (1), heliantriol B(0) (2), heliantriol C (3), 22alpha-methoxyfaradiol (4), arnidiol (5), and faradiol alpha-epoxide (6); five oleananes, maniladiol (7), erythrodiol (8), longispinogenin (9), coflodiol (10), and heliantriol A(1) (11); two ursanes, brein (12) and uvaol (13); and two lupanes, calenduladiol (14) and heliantriol B(2) (15). These compounds were isolated from the non-saponifiable lipid fraction of the edible flower extract of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The flowers also contain the anti-HIV compound, Acacetin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside.    
     
    
Suggested Amount:    

Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers are generally taken mixed with other herbal ingredients in various tonic and therapeutic preparations. Dosages as high as 60 grams of flowers have been used daily for lowering vascular pressure.    
     
    
Drug Interactions:    

None known.    
     
    
Contraindications:    

None known.    
     
    
Side Effects:    

Chrysanthemum morifolium fresh flowers and leaves, as with many other Compositae plants, can cause contact dermatitis and eczema in susceptible persons – even through airborne exposure in sensitive people. Those with extreme sensitivity to these plants may experience allergic reactions from drinking Chrysanthemum tea, although this is usually not the case. It is best not to handle plant material without gloves, particularly Compositae species including Chrysanthemum morifolium. [Sharma SC, Tanwar RC, Kaur S. 1989. Contact dermatitis from chrysanthemums in India. Contact Dermatitis. 1989 Aug; 21(2): 69-71; Sertoli A, Campolmi P, Fabbri P, Gelsomini N, Panconesi E. 1985. [Contact eczema caused by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat]. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 1985 Sep-Oct; 120(5): 365-70. Italian; Campolmi P, Sertoli A, Fabbri P, Panconesi E. 1978. Alantolactone sensitivity in chrysanthemum contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 1978 Apr; 4(2): 93-102].    
     
    
References:    

Ukiya M, Akihisa T, Tokuda H, Suzuki H, Mukainaka T, Ichiishi E, Yasukawa K, Kasahara Y, Nishino H. 2002. Constituents of Compositae plants. III. Anti-tumor promoting effects and cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines of triterpene diols and triols from edible chrysanthemum flowers. Cancer Lett. 2002 Mar 8; 177(1): 7-12.
 
Ukiya M, Akihisa T, Yasukawa K, Kasahara Y, Kimura Y, Koike K, Nikaido T, Takido M. 2001. Constituents of compositae plants. 2. Triterpene diols, triols, and their 3-o-fatty acid esters from edible chrysanthemum flower extract and their anti-inflammatory effects. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jul; 49(7): 3187-97.
 
Wang HK, Xia Y, Yang ZY, Natschke SL, Lee KH. 1998. Recent advances in the discovery and development of flavonoids and their analogues as antitumor and anti-HIV agents. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998; 439: 191-225. Review.
 
Yu XY. 1993. [A prospective clinical study on reversion of 200 precancerous patients with hua-sheng-ping]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 Mar; 13(3): 147-9, 132. Chinese.
 
Zhou YL. 1987. [Chrysanthemum morifolium in the treatment of hypertension]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1987 Jan; 7(1): 18-20, 4. Chinese.